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The purpose of our study was to determine the value of noninvasive measurements of the velocity of blood flow in the fetal middle cerebral artery for the diagnosis of fetal anemia. We measured the hemoglobin concentration in blood obtained by cordocentesis and also the peak velocity of systolic blood flow in the middle cerebral artery in 54 fetuses at risk for anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Peak systolic velocity was measured by Doppler velocimetry. In fetuses without hydrops that are at risk because of maternal redcell alloimmunization, moderate and severe anemia can be detected noninvasively by Doppler ultrasonography on the basis of an increase in the peak velocity of systolic blood flow in the middle cerebral artery.

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